India has the richest plant based medicinal traditional system Ayurveda. Zanthoxylum armatum DC. from family Rutaceae, also known as Indian prickly ash finds an important place in Indian medicinal system. It has been used as stomachic, carminative, anthelmintic. The fruits have been used in dental problems and their lotion for scabies. The plant has been screened for various biological activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anthelmintic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, mosquito larvicidal, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, immunomodulatory, antioxidant activity and cardiovascular problems. It has also been subjected to allelopathic studies. Various studies have indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally important chemical constituents in the plant. It contains alkaloids, essential oil, resins, sterols, triterpenes, glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Significant medicinal properties and excessive increase in demand has put this plant in the category of endangered plants. In this review, the authors have done an effort to compile up the literature available on the medicinal properties of this amazing traditional healer.